Exodus 32

The Golden Calf

When the people saw that Moses delayed coming down out of the mount, the people gathered themselves together to Aaron.  The people (to Aaron): Make us gods, which shall go before us; as for Moses, the man that brought us out of the land of Egypt, we do not know what is become of him.

Aaron: Break off the golden earrings, which are in the ears of your wives, sons, and daughters, and bring them to me.

All the people broke off the golden earrings which were in their ears and brought them to Aaron. And he received them from their hand, and fashioned the gold with a graving tool, after he had made it a molten calf.

The people: These are your gods, O Israel, which brought you out of the land of Egypt.

And when Aaron saw it, he built an altar before it; and Aaron made a proclamation.

Aaron: Tomorrow is a feast to the Lord.

And they rose up early the next day, and offered burnt offerings, and brought peace offerings; and the people sat down to eat and to drink and rose up to play.

The Lord (to Moses): Go, get down from the mountain; for your people, which you brought out of the land of Egypt, have corrupted themselves: They have turned aside quickly out of the way which I commanded them: they have made themselves a molten calf, and have worshipped it, and have sacrificed to it, and said, These are your gods, O Israel, which have brought you out of the land of Egypt. I have seen this people, and it is a stiff-necked people: Now therefore let me alone, that my wrath may wax hot against them, and that I may consume them: and I will make of you a great nation.

And Moses besought the Lord his God.

Moses: Lord, why does your wrath wax hot against your people, which you have brought out of the land of Egypt with great power, and with a mighty hand? Why should the Egyptians speak, and say, For mischief he did bring them out, to slay them in the mountains, and to consume them from the face of the earth? Turn from your fierce wrath, and repent of this evil against your people. Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, your servants, to whom you swore by your own self, and said to them, I will multiply your seed as the stars of heaven, and all this land that I have spoken of I will give to your seed, and they shall inherit it for ever.

And the Lord repented of the evil which he thought to do to his people.

Moses turned and went down from the mountain, and the two tablets of the testimony were in his hand: the tablets were written on both their sides; on the one side and on the other were they written. And the tablets were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, engraved on the tablets.

Joshua heard the noise of the people as they shouted.

Joshua (to Moses): There is a noise of war in the camp.

Moses: It is not the voice of them that shout for mastery, neither is it the voice of them that cry for being overcome: but the noise of them that sing do I hear.

As soon as Moses came near the camp, he saw the calf, and the dancing: and Moses’ anger waxed hot, and he cast the tablets out of his hands and broke them beneath the mountain. And he took the calf which they had made, and burnt it in the fire, ground it to powder, and scattered it on the water, and made the children of Israel drink of it.

Moses (to Aaron): What did this people to you, that you have brought so great a sin on them?

Aaron: Do not let the anger of my lord wax hot: you know the people, that they are set on mischief. For they said to me, Make us gods, which shall go before us: as for this Moses, the man that brought us out of the land of Egypt, we do not know what is become of him. And I said to them, Whoever has any gold, let them break it off. So they gave it to me: then I cast it into the fire, and there came out this calf.

When Moses saw that the people were naked; (for Aaron had made them naked to their shame among their enemies:) Then Moses stood in the gate of the camp.

Moses: Who is on the Lord’s side? let him come to me.

And all the sons of Levi gathered themselves together with Moses.

Moses: The Lord God of Israel says this, Put every man his sword by his side, and go in and out from gate to gate throughout the camp, and slay every man his brother, and every man his companion, and every man his neighbor.

And the children of Levi did according to the word of Moses: and there fell of the people that day about three thousand men.

Moses: Consecrate yourselves today to the Lord, even every man on his son, and on his brother; that he may bestow on you a blessing this day.

The next day:

Moses (to the people): You have sinned a great sin: and now I will go up to the Lord; perhaps I shall make an atonement for your sin.

Moses returned to the Lord.

Moses: Oh, this people have sinned a great sin, and have made themselves gods of gold. Yet now, if you will forgive their sin—; and if not, blot me out of your book which you have written.

The Lord (to Moses): Whoever has sinned against me, him will I blot out of my book. Therefore now go, lead the people to the place of which I have spoken to you: behold, my Angel shall go before you: nevertheless in the day when I visit, I will visit their sin on them.

And the Lord plagued the people, because they made the calf, which Aaron made.

Exodus 31

Two Artisans for the Building of the Tabernacle  

The Lord spoke to Moses:

See, I have called by name Bezaleel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah.

I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all manner of workmanship, To devise cunning works, to work in gold, and in silver, and in brass, And in cutting of stones, to set them, and in carving of timber, to work in all manner of workmanship.

I have given with him Aholiab, the son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan.

And in the hearts of all that are wise hearted I have put wisdom, that they may make all that I have commanded you; The tabernacle of the congregation, and the ark of the testimony, and the mercy seat that is on it, and all the furniture of the tabernacle, And the table and his furniture, and the pure candlestick with all his furniture, and the altar of incense, And the altar of burnt offering with all his furniture, and the laver and his foot, And the clothes of service, and the holy garments for Aaron the priest, and the garments of his sons, to minister in the priest’s office, And the anointing oil, and sweet incense for the holy place: according to all that I have commanded you, they shall do.

The Sabbath Law

The Lord (to Moses): Speak to the children of Israel, saying, You shall keep my sabbaths: for it is a sign between me and you throughout your generations; that you may know that I am the Lord who sanctifies you. You shall keep the sabbath; for it is holy to you: every one that defiles it shall surely be put to death: for whoever does any work in it, that soul shall be cut off from among his people. Six days may work be done; but the seventh is the sabbath of rest, holy to the Lord: whoever does any work in the sabbath day, he shall surely be put to death. Therefore the children of Israel shall keep the sabbath, to observe the sabbath throughout their generations, for a perpetual covenant. It is a sign between me and the children of Israel for ever: for in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested, and was refreshed.

When he had made an end of communing with him on mount Sinai, the Lord gave to Moses, two tablets of testimony, tables of stone, written with the finger of God.

Exodus 30

The Altar of Incense And you shall make an altar to burn incense on it: of acacia wood you shall make it. A cubit (1.5 ft) shall be the length of it, and a cubit (1.5 ft) the breadth of it; it shall be square: and two cubits (3 ft) shall be the height of it: the horns of it shall be of the same. And you shall overlay it with pure gold, the top of it, and the sides of it round about, and the horns of it; and you shall make on it a crown of gold round about. And two golden rings shall you make to it under the crown of it, by the two corners of it, on the two sides of it shall you make it; and they shall be for places for the staves to carry it with. And you shall make the staves of acacia wood, and overlay them with gold. And you shall put it before the veil that is by the ark of the testimony, before the mercy seat that is over the testimony, where I will meet with you. And Aaron shall burn on it sweet incense every morning: when he dresses the lamps, he shall burn incense on it.

And when Aaron lights the lamps at evening, he shall burn incense on it, a perpetual incense before the Lord throughout your generations. You shall offer no strange incense on it, nor burnt sacrifice, nor meat offering; neither shall you pour drink offering on it. And Aaron shall make an atonement on the horns of it once in a year with the blood of the sin offering of atonements: he shall make atonement on it once in the year throughout your generations: it is most holy to the Lord.

The Ransom Money

The Lord (to Moses): When you take the sum of the children of Israel after their number, then shall they give every man a ransom for his soul to the Lord, when you number them; that there be no plague among them, when you number them. This they shall give, every one that passes among them that are numbered, half a shekel after the shekel of the sanctuary: (a shekel is twenty gerahs:) a half shekel shall be the offering of the Lord. Every one that passes among them that are numbered, from twenty years old and above, shall give an offering to the Lord. The rich shall not give more, and the poor shall not give less than half a shekel, when they give an offering to the Lord, to make an atonement for your souls. And you shall take the atonement money of the children of Israel, and shall appoint it for the service of the tabernacle of the congregation; that it may be a memorial to the children of Israel before the Lord, to make an atonement for your souls.

The Bronze Laver

The Lord (to Moses): You shall also make a laver of brass, and his foot also of brass, to wash with: and you shall put it between the tabernacle of the congregation and the altar, and you shall put water in it. For Aaron and his sons shall wash their hands and their feet at it: When they go into the tabernacle of the congregation, they shall wash with water, that they do not die; or when they come near to the altar to minister, to burn offering made by fire to the Lord: So they shall wash their hands and their feet, that they do not die: and it shall be a statute for ever to them, even to him and to his seed throughout their generations.

The Holy Anointing Oil

The Lord (to Moses): Take principal spices:

five hundred shekels of pure myrrh,

two hundred and fifty shekels of sweet cinnamon,

two hundred and fifty shekels of sweet calamus

five hundred shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary of cassia, and of oil olive

a hin (5.5 quarts) of olive oil:

And you shall make it an oil of holy ointment, an ointment compound after the art of the apothecary: it shall be a holy anointing oil.

And you shall anoint the tabernacle of the congregation with it, and the ark of the testimony, And the table and all his vessels, and the candlestick and his vessels, and the altar of incense, And the altar of burnt offering with all his vessels, and the laver and his foot. And you shall sanctify them, that they may be most holy: whatever touches them shall be holy.

And you shall anoint Aaron and his sons, and consecrate them, that they may minister you me in the priest’s office. This shall be a holy anointing oil to me throughout your generations.

It shall not be poured on man’s flesh, neither shall you make any other like it, after the composition of it: it is holy, and it shall be holy to you. Whoever compounds any like it, or whoever puts any of it on a stranger, shall be cut off from his people.

Incense

The Lord (to Moses): Take sweet spices, stacte, and onycha, and galbanum; these sweet spices with pure frankincense: equal weight of each: And you shall make a perfume, a confection after the art of the apothecary, tempered together, pure and holy: And you shall beat some of it very small, and put of it before the testimony in the tabernacle of the congregation, where I will meet with you: it shall be to you most holy. And as for the perfume which you shall make, you shall not make for yourselves according to the composition of it: it shall be to you holy for the Lord. Whoever shall make any like it, to smell it, shall be cut off from his people.

Exodus 28

Priestly Garments  

Priestly garments for Aaron and his sons Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar in which they minister to God in the priest’s office.

Holy garments for glory and for beauty. Those who are wise hearted, whom God filled with the spirit of wisdom, shall make Aaron’s garments to consecrate him.

They shall make; a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and an embroidered coat, a mitre (headdress), and a girdle.

The ephod of gold, of blue, and of purple, of scarlet, and fine twined linen, with cunning work. It shall have two shoulder pieces joined at the two edges of it.

The girdle of the ephod shall also be made of gold, blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twined linen.

Take two onyx stones, and engrave on them the names of the children of Israel: Six of their names on one stone, and the other six names on the other stone, according to their birth. Make them to be set in settings of gold. And put the two stones on the shoulders of the ephod for stones of memorial to the children of Israel: and Aaron shall bear their names before the Lord on his two shoulders for a memorial.

Make settings of gold; And two chains of pure gold at the ends; of wreathen work you shall make them, and fasten the wreathen chains to the settings.

Make the breastplate of judgment with cunning work; Make it also of gold, blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twined linen. It shall be square being doubled; a span (9 inches) shall be the length of it, and a span shall be the breadth of it.

Set in the breastplate settings of stones, four rows of stones with three stone on each row.

1st row shall have a sardius, a topaz, and a carbuncle.

2nd row shall have an emerald, a sapphire, and a diamond.

3rd row shall have a ligure, an agate, and an amethyst.

4th row shall have a beryl, and an onyx, and a jasper.

The stones shall be set in gold. And the stones shall have the names of the children of Israel engraved.

Make on the breastplate chains at the ends of wreathen work of pure gold.

Make on the breastplate two rings of gold on the two ends of the breastplate. Put the two wreathen chains of gold in the two rings. And the other two ends of the two wreathen chains you shall fasten in the two settings, and put them on the shoulderpieces of the ephod before it.

Put two rings of gold on the two ends of the breastplate in the border of it inside. Make two other rings of gold. They shall bind the breastplate by the rings of it to the rings of the ephod with a lace of blue, that the breastplate be not loosed from the ephod.

And Aaron shall bear the names of the children of Israel in the breastplate of judgment on his heart, when he goes in to the holy place, for a memorial before the Lord continually.

Put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim; and they shall be on Aaron’s heart, when he goes in before the Lord: and Aaron shall bear the judgment of the children of Israel on his heart before the Lord continually.

Make the robe of the ephod all of blue. And there shall be a hole in the top of it, in the middle of it: it shall have a binding of woven work round about the hole of it, as it were the hole of an habergeon, that it be not rent.

On the hem of the robe make pomegranates of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, round about the hem of it; and bells of gold between them round about: A golden bell and a pomegranate, a golden bell and a pomegranate, around the hem of the robe. The robe shall be on Aaron to minister: and his sound (the sound of the golden bells on his robe) shall be heard when he goes into the holy place before the Lord, and when he comes out, that he does not die.

Make a plate of pure gold, and engrave on it, Holiness to the Lord. And put it on a blue lace, on the front mitre. And it shall be on Aaron’s forehead, that Aaron may bear the iniquity of the holy things, which the children of Israel shall hallow in all their holy gifts; and it shall be always on his forehead, that they may be accepted before the Lord.

Embroider the coat of fine linen, and make the mitre of fine linen, and make the girdle of needlework.

And for Aaron’s sons make coats, girdles, and bonnets for glory and for beauty.

And you shall put them on Aaron your brother, and his sons with him; and shall anoint them, and consecrate them, and sanctify them, that they may minister to me in the priest’s office.

Make linen breeches to cover their nakedness from the loins to the thighs: And they shall be on Aaron, and on his sons, when they come in to the tabernacle of the congregation, or when they come near to the altar to minister in the holy place; that they do not bear iniquity and die: it shall be a statute for ever to him and his seed after him.

Exodus 25

The Tabernacle:  The Lord (to Moses): Speak to the children of Israel, that they bring me an offering: of every man that gives it willingly with his heart you shall take my offering. And this is the offering which you shall take of them;

  •  gold, and silver, and brass 
  •  blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen  
  •  goats’ hair, And rams’ skins dyed red, and badgers’ skins, and  
  •  shittim wood,  
  •  Oil for the light,  
  •  spices for anointing oil, and for sweet incense,  
  •  Onyx stones, and stones to be set in the ephod, and in the breastplate.  

And let them make me a sanctuary; that I may dwell among them. According to all that I show you, after the pattern of the tabernacle, and the pattern of all the instruments of it, even so shall you make it. 
The Ark of the Covenant:

  • They shall make an ark of shittim wood:  
  •  two cubits and a half shall be the length of it, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height of it.  
  •  overlay it with pure gold, inside and outside you shall overlay it 
  •  make on it a crown of gold round about 
  •  cast four rings of gold for it, and put them in the four corners of it; and two rings shall be in the one side of it, and two rings in the other side of it. 
  •  make staves of shittim wood, and overlay them with gold. And you shall put the staves into the rings by the sides of the ark, that the ark may be borne with them. The staves shall be in the rings of the ark: they shall not be taken from it.  
  •  put into the ark the testimony which I shall give you.  
  •  Make a mercy seat of pure gold: two cubits and a half shall be the length of it, and a cubit and a half the breadth of it. 
  •  make two cherubims of gold, of beaten work shall you make them, in the two ends of the mercy seat. And make one cherub on the one end, and the other cherub on the other end: even of the mercy seat shall you make the cherubims on the two ends of it. And the cherubims shall stretch forth their wings on high, covering the mercy seat with their wings, and their faces shall look one to another; toward the mercy seat shall the faces of the cherubims be.  
  •  And you shall put the mercy seat above upon the ark; 
  •  In the ark you shall put the testimony that I shall give you. And there I will meet with you, and I will commune with you from above the mercy seat, from between the two cherubims which are upon the ark of the testimony, of all things which I will give you in commandment to the children of Israel. 

Table for the Showbread:

  •  make a table of shittim wood:  
  •  two cubits shall be the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth of it, and a cubit and a half the height of it.  
  •  Overlay it with pure gold 
  •  Make thereto a crown of gold round about.  
  •  Make for it a border of an hand breadth round about it 
  •  Make a golden crown to the border of it round about it 
  •  Make for it four rings of gold, and put the rings in the four corners that are on the four feet of it. Over against the border shall the rings be for places of the staves to bear the table. And you shall  
  •  Make the staves of shittim wood, and overlay them with gold, that the table may be borne with them.  
  •  Make the dishes of it, and spoons of it, and covers of it, and bowls thereof, to cover withal: of pure gold shall you make them.  

 Set on the table showbread before me always.

Candlestick:

  •  Make a candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work.  
  •  His shaft, and his branches, his bowls, his knops, and his flowers, shall be of the same.  
  •  Six branches shall come out of the sides of it; Three branches of the candlestick out of the one side, and three branches of the candlestick out of the other side:
    Three bowls made like unto almonds, with a knop and a flower in one branch; and three bowls made like almonds in the other branch, with a knop and a flower: so in the six branches that come out of the candlestick. 
  • And in the candlestick shall be four bowls made like unto almonds, with their knops and their flowers. And there shall be a knop under two branches of the same, and a knop under two branches of the same, and a knop under two branches of the same, according to the six branches that proceed out of the candlestick. Their knops and their branches shall be of the same: all it shall be one beaten work of pure gold. 
  •  Make the seven lamps thereof: and they shall light the lamps thereof, that they may give light over against it.  
  •  And the tongs thereof, and the snuffdishes of it, shall be of pure gold.  

He shall make it of a talent of pure gold, with all these vessels. And look that you make them after their pattern, which was showed to you in the mount.

Exodus 24

On the Mountain of God 

The
Lord (to Moses): Come up to the Lord, you, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel; and worship afar off. And Moses alone shall come near the Lord: but they shall not come near; neither shall the people go up with him. 

Moses came and told the people all the words of the Lord, and all the judgments: and all the people answered with one voice.

The people: All the words which the Lord has said we will do.

And Moses wrote all the words of the Lord, and rose up early in the morning, and built an altar under the hill, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel. And he sent young men of the children of Israel, which offered burnt offerings, and sacrificed peace offerings of oxen to the Lord. And Moses took half of the blood, and put it in basins; and half of the blood he sprinkled on the altar. And he took the book of the covenant, and read in the audience of the people.

The people: All that the Lord has said we will do, and be obedient.

And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people. 

Moses: Behold the blood of the covenant, which the Lord has made with you concerning all these words.

Then Moses, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel went up: And they saw the God of Israel: and there was under his feet as it were a paved work of a sapphire stone, and as it were the body of heaven in his clearness. And he did not lay his hand upon the nobles of the children of Israel: also they saw God, and ate and drank.

The Lord (to Moses): Come up to me into the mount, and be there: and I will give you tables of stone, and a law, and commandments which I have written; that you may teach them.

And Moses rose up, and his minister Joshua: and Moses went up into the mount of God.

Moses (to the elders): Wait here for us, until we come again to you: and, behold, Aaron and Hur are with you: if any man have any matters to do, let him come to them.

And Moses went up into the mount, and a cloud covered the mount. And the glory of the Lord abode on mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days: and the seventh day he called to Moses out of the midst of the cloud. And the sight of the glory of the Lord was like devouring fire on the top of the mount in the eyes of the children of Israel. 

And Moses went into the midst of the cloud, and gat him up into the mount: and Moses was in the mount forty days and forty nights. 

Exodus 23

The Sabbath and Three Annual Feasts 

The Lord continues:

  • You shall not raise a false report: do not put your hand with the wicked to be an unrighteous witness. 
  •  You shall not follow a multitude to do evil; neither shall you speak in a cause to decline after many to wrest judgment: 
  •  Neither shall you be partial to a poor man in his dispute. (ESV) 
  •  If you meet your enemy’s ox or his ass going astray, you shall surely bring it back to him again. If you see the ass of him that hates you lying under his burden, and would forbear to help him, you shall surely help with him.  
  •  You shall not wrest the judgment of your poor in his cause.  
  •  Keep far from a false matter 
  •  Do not slay the innocent and righteous: for I will not justify the wicked. 
  •  You shall take no gift: for the gift blinds the wise and perverts the words of the righteous. 
  •  You shall not oppress a stranger: for you know the heart of a stranger, seeing you were strangers in the land of Egypt.  

Six years you shall sow your land, and shall gather in the fruits of it: But the seventh year you shall let it rest and lie still; that the poor of your people may eat: and what they leave the beasts of the field shall eat. In like manner, you shall deal with your vineyard, and with your olive yard.

Six days you shall do your work, and on the seventh day you shall rest: that your ox and your ass may rest, and the son of your handmaid, and the stranger, may be refreshed.

In all things that I have said to you be circumspect: and make no mention of the name of other gods, neither let it be heard out of your mouth.

Three times in the year, you shall keep a feast for me.  
1) You shall keep the feast of unleavened bread: (you shall eat unleavened bread seven days, as I commanded you, in the time appointed of the month Abib; for in it you came out from Egypt: and none shall appear before me empty:)

2) The feast of harvest, the firstfruits of your labors, which you have sown in the field:

3) The feast of ingathering, which is in the end of the year, when you have gathered in your labors out of the field.

Three times in the year all your males shall appear before the Lord God. You shall not offer the blood of my sacrifice with leavened bread; neither shall the fat of my sacrifice remain until the morning.  

The first of the firstfruits of your land you shall bring into the house of the Lord your God. You shall not seethe a kid in his mother’s milk.

Behold, I send an Angel before you, to keep you in the way, and to bring you into the place which I have prepared. Beware of him, and obey his voice, do not provoke him; for he will not pardon your transgressions: for my name is in him. But if you shall indeed obey his voice, and do all that I speak; then I will be an enemy to your enemies, and an adversary to your adversaries. For my Angel shall go before you, and bring you in to the Amorites, and the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and the Canaanites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites: and I will cut them off. You shall not bow down to their gods, nor serve them, nor do after their works: but you shall utterly overthrow them, and quite break down their images.

And you shall serve the Lord your God, and he shall bless your bread, and your water; and I will take sickness away from the midst of you. There shall nothing miscarry their young, nor be barren, in your land: the number of your days I will fulfill.

I will send my fear before you, and will destroy all the people to whom you shall come, and I will make all your enemies turn their backs to you (running away). And I will send hornets before you, which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before you. I will not drive them out from before you in one year; lest the land become desolate, and the beast of the field multiply against you. By little and little I will drive them out from before you, until you are increased, and inherit the land.

And I will set your boarders from the Red sea even to the sea of the Philistines, and from the desert to the river: for I will deliver the inhabitants of the land into your hand; and you shall drive them out before you. You shall make no covenant with them, nor with their gods. They shall not dwell in your land, lest they make you sin against me: for if you serve their gods, it will surely be a snare to you.

Exodus 22

God’s Justice 

• If a man shall steal an ox, or a sheep, and kills it, or sells it; he shall restore five oxen for an ox, and four sheep for a sheep.

• If a thief is found breaking in, and is struck that he die, there shall no blood be shed for him. If the sun be risen upon him, there shall be blood shed for him; for he should make full restitution; if he has nothing, then he shall be sold for his theft. If the theft is certainly found in his hand alive, whether it be ox, or ass, or sheep; he shall restore double.

• If a man shall cause a field or vineyard to be eaten, and shall put in his beast, and shall feed in another man’s field; of the best of his own field, and of the best of his own vineyard, shall he make restitution.

• If fire breaks out, and catches in thorns, so that the stacks of corn, or the standing corn, or the field, be consumed with it; he that kindled the fire shall surely make restitution.

• If a man shall deliver to his neighbor money or stuff to keep, and it is stolen out of the man’s house; if the thief is found, let him pay double. If the thief is not found, then the master of the house shall be brought to the judges, to see whether he has put his hand to his neighbor’s goods. For all manner of trespass, whether it be for ox, for ass, for sheep, for raiment, or for any manner of lost thing, which another challenges to be his, the cause of both parties shall come before the judges; and whom the judges shall condemn, he shall pay double to his neighbor.

• If a man deliver to his neighbor an ass, or an ox, or a sheep, or any beast, to keep; and it die, or is hurt, or driven away, no man seeing it: Then shall an oath of the Lord be between them both, that he has not put his hand to his neighbor’s goods; and the owner of it shall accept thereof, and he shall not make it good. And if it be stolen from him, he shall make restitution to the owner of it. If it is torn in pieces (by a wild animal, for example a wolf), then let him bring it for witness, and he shall not make good that which was torn.

• If a man borrow anything of his neighbor, and it is hurt, or die, the owner of it being not with it, he shall surely make it good. But if the owner of it is with it, he shall not make it good: if it is a hired thing, it came for his hire.

• If a man entice a maid that is not betrothed, and lie with her, he shall surely endow her to be his wife. If her father utterly refuses to give her to him, he shall pay money according to the dowry of virgins.

• You shall not suffer a witch to live.

• Whoever lies with a beast (sexually) shall surely be put to death.

• He that sacrifices to any god, save to the Lord only, he shall be utterly destroyed.

• You shall neither vex a stranger, nor oppress him: for you were strangers in the land of Egypt.

• You shall not afflict any widow, or fatherless child. If you afflict them in any wise, and they cry at all to me, I will surely hear their cry; And my wrath shall wax hot, and I will kill you with the sword; and your wives shall be widows, and your children fatherless.

• If you lend money to any of my people that are poor by you, you shall not be to him as a moneylender, neither shall you lay interest on him.

• If you at all take your neighbor’s garment as a pledge, you shall deliver it to him by the time the sun goes down: For that garment is his only covering, it is his garment for his skin: wherein shall he sleep? and it shall come to pass, when he cries out to me, that I will hear; for I am gracious.

• You shall not revile the gods, nor curse the ruler of your people.

• You shall not delay to offer the first of your ripe fruits, and of your liquors: the firstborn of your sons you shall give to me. Likewise shall you do with your oxen, and with your sheep: seven days it shall be with his dam; on the eighth day you shall give it to me.

• You shall be holy men to me: neither shall you eat any flesh that is torn of beasts in the field; you shall cast it to the dogs.

Exodus 21

Laws Concerning Servants, Violence and Animal Control 

The Lord continued speaking to Moses.

These are the judgments which you shall set before the people.

Servants:

• If you buy a Hebrew servant, he shall serve six years: and in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing. If he came in by himself, he shall go out by himself: if he were married, then his wife shall go out with him. If his master has given him a wife, and she has born him sons or daughters; the wife and her children shall be her master’s, and he shall go out by himself. And if the servant shall plainly say, I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out free: Then his master shall bring him to the judges; he shall also bring him to the door, or to the door post; and his master shall bore his ear through with an awl; and he shall serve him for ever.

• And if a man sell his daughter to be a maidservant, she shall not go out as the menservants do. If she does not please her master, who has betrothed her to himself, then he shall let her be redeemed: he shall have no power to sell her to a strange nation, seeing he has dealt deceitfully with her. And if he has betrothed her to his son, he shall deal with her after the manner of daughters. If he takes for himself another wife; he shall not diminish her food, her raiment, and her duty of marriage. And if he does not these three to her, then she shall go out free without money.

Violence:

• He that strikes a man, so that he die, shall surely be put to death. And if a man does not lie in wait, but God delivers him into his hand; then I will appoint for you a place where he shall flee. But if a man comes presumptuously to his neighbor, to slay him with guile; you shall take him from my altar, that he may die.

• He that strikes his father, or his mother, shall surely be put to death.

• He that steals a man, and sells him, or if he is found in his hand, he shall surely be put to death.

• He that curses his father, or his mother, shall surely be put to death.

• If men strive together, and one strikes another with a stone, or with his fist, and he does not die, but keeps to his bed: If he rises again, and walks abroad on his staff, then shall he that struck him be quit: only he shall pay for the loss of his time, and shall cause him to be thoroughly healed.

• If a man strikes his servant, or his maid, with a rod, and he dies under his hand; he shall surely be punished. Notwithstanding, if he continue a day or two, he shall not be punished: for he is his money.

• If men strive, and hurt a woman with child, so that her fruit depart from her, and yet no mischief follow: he shall surely be punished, according as the woman’s husband will lay on him; and he shall pay as the judges determine. And if any mischief follow, then you shall give life for life, Eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, Burning for burning, wound for wound, stripe for stripe.

• And if a man strikes the eye of his servant, or the eye of his maid, that it perish; he shall let him go free for his eye’s sake. And if he strikes out his manservant’s tooth, or his maidservant’s tooth; he shall let him go free for his tooth’s sake.

Animtal Control:

• If an ox gore a man or a woman, that they die: then the ox shall surely be stoned, and his flesh shall not be eaten; but the owner of the ox shall be quit. But if the ox were wont to push with his horn in time past, and it has been testified to his owner, and he has not kept him in, but that he has killed a man or a woman; the ox shall be stoned, and his owner shall be put to death also. If there be laid on him a sum of money, then he shall give for the ransom of his life whatever is laid upon him. Whether he has gored a son, or has gored a daughter, according to this judgment shall it be done to him. If the ox shall push a manservant or a maidservant; he shall give to their master thirty shekels of silver, and the ox shall be stoned.

• And if a man shall open a pit, or if a man shall dig a pit, and not cover it, and an ox or an ass fall in it; The owner of the pit shall make it good, and give money to the owner of them; and the dead beast shall be his.

• If one man’s ox hurts another’s, that he die; then they shall sell the live ox, and divide the money of it; and the dead ox they shall divide also. Or if it be known that the ox has used to push in time past, and his owner has not kept him in; he shall surely pay ox for ox; and the dead shall be his own.

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